In aerospace engineering, The most destructive and dangerous materials a commercial or military jet engines can ingest is volcanic ash(or)dust and one of the least would be crayons and cereal.
It consists of fragments of pulverized rock, such as minerals and volcanic glass, Which created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm in diameter. Thus the term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products, includes particles larger than 2 mm in diameter. Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when the dissolved gases in magma expand and escapes violently into the air. The force of escaping gas shatter the magma and propel it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into the fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Volcanic ash is also produced when magma comes into contact with water during phreato-magmatic eruptions, which causing the water to explosively flash to steam leading to shattering of magma eruption. Once in the air, Volcanic ash is transported by wind up to the thousands of kilometers away.
Due to its wide dispersal, ash can have a number of impacts such as on the society, which includes humans and animals health, causing disruption to aviation industry, disruption to critical infrastructure.
The Volcanic ash distribution spider, shows here in the inlet section of the engine while its running, which used to send the ultra-fine particles of ash through the engine inlet.
NASA looking to reduce impacts of volcanic eruption materials on jets.
Those two substances were a key part of testing in aerospace engineering labs,that NASA has been conducting on smart engine sensors that could detects and help pilots avoid a volcanic plume. New sensors are expected to detect the degradation caused by the volcanic dust, quantifying the significance of the event, which aid in identifying components might require maintenance service.
NASA said that, the sensors also would able to measures emissions and combustion and can detects the effect of the dust on the engines in real time and they researched the anticipating capabilities that can predict how long it will take for an issue to evolve the system. Sensors which can include one that developed was used for the shuttle prime engines, as well as with high-temperature fiber optics, thin film sensors and acoustic microphone arrays.
But US space agency also revealed that 80 planes were probably brought down by volcanic ash BEFORE the 2010 calamity.
Impacts effects of the volcano in Iceland there was also an grown interest in the aviation community is better to understanding the effects of volcanic ash in engine.”
They also pointed out to a U.S. Geological Survey that found more than eighty commercial aircraft encountered many possibly hazardous volcanic ash in flight and at airports. In the history of aerospace engineering, Before the big 2010 volcanic ash eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which damage hundreds of flight in Europe.